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Bahrain

Country Key Facts

Capital City Manama
Population 1,425,171 (according to 2016 estimate)
Main Languages Spoken Arabic, Urdu, English, Farsi
Main Religions Islam, Christian, Hindu
Calling Code +973
Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

For British nationals to enter Bahrain, you need to obtain a visa. The good news is that British citizens can also choose to get a visa on arrival in Bahrain. However, it is strongly advised to get the visa in advance for a smooth and hassle-free entry process at the Border of Bahrain.

British nationals can apply for a visa either from the Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain at a location close to them in the UK or they can fill an online form.

Visas are usually issued for a day, 3 days, 2 weeks or as long as 3 months. The duration of the visa issued depends on the visitor’s requirements and the immigration officer's discretion. To be issued a visa, however, your passport should be valid for more than 6 months from the date of your entry into Bahrain.

Remember, you cannot work in Bahrain if you have entered the territory on a visitor's visa. Also, when you return to the UK, you will need to provide evidence of your travels in Bahrain and proof of your intent to return to your home country.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Compared to many other countries in the Middle East, Bahrain is a liberal nation, with friendly and welcoming citizens. However, there also are a large number of citizens who follow conservative practices here, with orthodox social views. On the other hand, women are not as restricted in Bahrain as in most Arab countries. Instead of a wearing a complete veil, simply covering the head is sufficient for them.

For British nationals and other foreign citizens, it becomes immensely important to familiarise oneself with the culture in Bahrain before travelling to the country. Here are a few things you should know to avoid hurting anyone’s sentiments or get into any kind of trouble:

  • Do not wear revealing clothes in public. Make sure you dress conservatively especially when visiting religious sites.
  • Visitors are not allowed to bring DVDs and video cassettes into the nation. If you do, they'll be withheld at the airport.
  • Homosexual activities are allowed (mutual consent) amongst adults aged 21 years or above. However, there have been incidences when people have been punished for indulging in same-sex activities.
  • Sodomy is considered illegal in Bahrain

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

When travelling to Bahrain, check if you need to ensure any preventive measures or take any vaccinations at least 1-2 weeks before the visit. This is especially required if you have any pre-existing medical condition. During a pre-travel medical check-up, doctors will assess you for all health risks, based on your:

  • Travel destination
  • Activities planned in Bahrain
  • Medical history

 

If you missed it before, even a last-minute doctor’s appointment will be worthwhile. It is also important to carry travel health insurance to cover yourself for the cost of any emergency medical treatment in Bahrain.

Under Bahraini law, everyone, including residents and visitors, must carry photographic ID with them at all times. You can be asked anytime by the Bahraini authorities to present such identification. If you are unable to produce such proof, you could be charged a fine of 300BHD.

Bahrain is definitely an interesting travel destination, with a lot to offer visitors. In addition, the Bahrain government has been working hard to attract business to the nation, making laws more favourable for visitors.

Egypt

Country Key Facts

Capital City Cairo
Population 94,798,827 (according to 2017 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Saudi Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, English
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity and Judaism
Calling Code +974
Currency Egyptian Pound (EGP)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Hepatitis A, Tetanus, Typhoid
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

A breathtakingly beautiful country, Egypt is renowned for its amazing pyramids, the Sphinx and the river Nile. To travel to Egypt, a British national needs to have a passport and obtain a visa. The passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into the country.

UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are not accepted to enter or transit through Egypt. In case the traveller’s passport is lost/stolen in Egypt, they can obtain ETDs from the Passport and Immigration Office in Egypt to exit the country.

Visa on Arrival

In Egypt, visa on arrival is permitted for citizens of the UK, USA, EU nations, Australia, Canada, Japan, Russia and several other countries. The fees for visa on arrival can be paid in US dollars, euros and the Pound Sterling on arrival in Egypt. Visa on arrival is valid for 30 days.

Getting a visa on arrival is easy. However, it is always advisable to obtain a tourist visa before the trip, especially when travelling to Egypt for work or business. Travellers can apply for the appropriate visa at the Egyptian Consulate closest to them or apply online.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Egypt is a predominantly Islamic country. Women are highly respected here. However, there are certain restrictions on their conduct. Women are expected to dress conservatively for most occasions. The entire body should be covered, with clothes that cover the upper arms and shoulders and loose skirts below the knees to keep their legs covered being preferred. When in public, women are expected to be accompanied by a male companion. British nationals travelling to Egypt should familiarise themselves with the culture and traditions to avoid offending anyone during their trip.

To make the most of their journey, here are a few local laws and customs British nationals will need to adhere to:

  • Taking photographs of canals, including the Suez Canal, bridges, buildings, military personnel and equipment is prohibited in Egypt.
  • Possession of illicit drugs, even in small quantities, is illegal. Doing so can lead to imprisonment and even a death penalty.
  • Avoid making strong political comments in public.
  • In Egypt, homosexual activities can get lead to charges of debauchery.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Egypt offers basic medical facilities. In case of a medical emergency, travellers are always advised to visit the capital of the country, Cairo. The medical emergency number in Egypt is 123.

While some hotels do have doctors on call, they reportedly overcharge for their services. It is, therefore, advisable to pay close attention to the billing and ask questions for any kind of suspicious charges.

The environment in Egypt is very different from that in the UK. UK nationals are advised to visit their doctor to get themselves accessed for any health risks and check if they need any medication or vaccinations prior to the trip. Having travel insurance that provides adequate converge is a must when you are travelling to Egypt to remain protected against unexpected mishaps.

Iran

Country Key Facts

Capital City Tehran
Population 81,672,300 (according to 2018 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Persian (Farsi), Kurdish, Arabic
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Judaism
Calling Code +98
Currency Rial (IRR)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies, Cholera, Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

British citizens wanting to visit Iran will require a visa. Travellers are always advised to apply for the visa well in advance of their travel to Iran. Processing of an Iranian visa is unpredictable and can, reportedly, take very long. Moreover, there are many private online visa agencies that can further delay the visa process.

Overstaying the visa beyond its expiry date is a punishable offense in Iran. You might not be allowed to leave the country until a penalty is decided for you.

Unlike other countries, where your passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry, Iranian authorities require your passport to be valid for 6 months from the date you have submitted the visa application.

Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs), issued by the British Embassy in case your passport has been lost, damaged or stolen, can be used to exit Iran but not to enter the country.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Iran is an Islamic country that strongly adheres to Muslim practices. This is easily reflected in the dress code and behaviour.

Dress Code

  • Men: Full length trousers and long-sleeved shirts
  • Women:Floor length skirt/full length trousers, long-sleeved tunic or coat that goes beyond the knee or at least mid-thigh, and a headscarf. When visiting a religious site or during Ramadan, women are further expected to cover their entire body, except their face, with “chador” to enter a religious site.

Islamic Code during Ramadan

  • Eating, drinking or smoking in public during daylight hours is forbidden.
  • Conservative dressing is expected at all times.
  • Diligent following of the laws, customs, traditions and practices is required.

Iranian society is not liberal for women. If a Muslim woman is caught having a relationship with a man who does not belong to her community, she can be sentenced to whipping. Iranian women need to be extra cautious when travelling with the opposite sex. At such times, they should dress modestly.

Under Iranian law, sex outside the marriage, homosexuality, alcohol, DVDs and magazines with sexual content, and drugs are illegal. It can lead to serious consequences and even a death sentence.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

The medical and healthcare facilities in Iran are not very trustworthy. The better hospitals and clinic are mostly located in major cities. Communication is easy here, since most health practitioners know a god amount of English.

British nationals are strongly advised to get themselves checked by a physician at least 1-2 months before their trip to Iran. If needed, get the required vaccinations and familiarise yourself with some preventive measures.

Make sure you invest in a good travel insurance plan before the trip to Iran, so that you are covered for any emergency treatment and even repatriation.

The emergency medical assistance number of Iran is 115, which you can call for an ambulance, when needed.

Iraq

Country Key Facts

Capital City Baghdad
Population 37,202,572 (according to 2016 estimates)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, Kurdish, Persian
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Yazdi
Calling Code +964
Currency Iraqi Dinar (IQD)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

In accordance with Iraqi law, citizens of all countries, including the UK, will require a visa to enter Iraq, including the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. UK nationals can apply for a visa at the Iraqi Consulate in Manchester or the Iraqi Embassy in London.

A major requirement for a visa is that the passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Iraq. Iraq does not accept UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) to allow entry into the country. However, these documents can be used to transit through or exit Iraq. 

Carrying the right documents is crucial when you arrive in Iraq. Inability to produce the right information can lead to a jail sentence.

If a visitor stays in Iraq for more than 10 days beyond the expiry date of their visa without contacting the concerned authority to extend their visa, they may have to obtain an exit stamp. Without an exit stamp, the visitor will not be able to leave the country.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Iraq is an Islamic nation that boasts a highly diverse culture. People here are deeply religious and conservative. It is really important for a UK national to educate themselves with the local customs, traditions and laws to avoid hurting the sentiments of the locals, especially when visiting a religious site or during the holy month of Ramadan.

Iraq is a highly tolerant region. Still, it would be advisable to dress modestly in public. Women are not bound to cover their heads in Iraq. However, they should carry a headscarf when travelling to a religious site.

Alcohol is available in a few restaurants and hotels. Avoid drinking alcohol in public places. Also, you are not allowed to carry alcohol around.

Under Iraqi Law, homosexuality is not illegal. However, beware of the hostile attitude of certain people towards the LGBT community, especially extremists who are ultra-orthodox. It is really important to educate yourself about the current status of the LGBT community at your travel destination in Iraq.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

In the end of 2017, Iraq witnessed an outbreak of avian influenza (bird flu) among birds and poultry. However, there was no evidence of the outbreak affecting humans in any way. Before travelling to a country, it becomes crucial to research about any such outbreaks and persisting health issues.

British nationals may experience health problems, such as dehydration, during their stay in Iraq, since the temperature here can cross 50ºC in summer. Iraq is not well equipped with advanced medical facilities. Healthcare centres are limited to certain parts of the country. Visitors are strongly advised to visit a general health practitioner at least 1-2 months before their trip to Iraq to know about the various health risks and preventive measures.

UK nationals should also research country specific health problems. Most importantly, travellers should consider buying good travel insurance before the trip to Iraq to cover for any unexpected medical and other expenses.

Israel

Country Key Facts

Capital City Jerusalem
Population 8,931,630 (according to 2018 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Hebrew, Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic
Main 3 Religions Jewish, Muslim, Christian
Calling Code +972
Currency New Shekel (ILS)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Rabies, Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

There is no need to get a visa for a British citizen to travel to Israel as a tourist. At Ben Gurion airport, visitors are given an entry card, whereas in some other airports, the passports are stamped, which acts as legal evidence of a British National’s entry into the country. You can stay for a maximum period of 3 months in the country. The key requirement is that the passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Israel. It is mandatory to keep the entry card with the passport during your stay in Israel.

In Israel, stay prepared for a cumbersome questioning process by the security officials, on your arrival at the airport, accompanied by extensive baggage searches.

In case your passport gets lost or is stolen, you cannot use Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) to enter Israel. However, the ETDs are valid to transit through and exit the country.

Most Important Cultural Customs

A majority of Israel comprises ultra-orthodox Jewish or Haredim (Charedim) neighbourhoods, consisting of the most identifiable subset of Jews today. The Haredi men can be easily spotted in black suits and black hats (wide brimmed), whereas Haredi women wear long skirts, stockings and complicated headcovers.

Due to their conservative dressing, the ultra-orthodox Jewish community does not tolerate men and women dressing inappropriately. British nationals should choose to wear modest attire and women should avoid wearing trousers.

Driving in areas of Shabbat or Jerusalem from Friday’s sunset to Saturday’s sunset can get you in serious trouble. The local residents in the ultra-orthodox Jewish areas have reportedly stoned many cars driving in this area during this period.

Drinking, eating and smoking in public places should be avoided during Ramadan. Don’t take photographs of the local residents without their permission.

Public display of affection (PDA) is frowned upon and may lead to negative consequences in some regions of Israel.

Same sex relationships are legal in the West Bank of Gaza, although they are not accepted in Gaza. A person caught for this reason may be sentenced to jail for at least 10 years.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

In Israel, visitors are at high risk of typhoid through contaminated food and water. Travellers are strongly recommended to get typhoid vaccination before travelling to Israel. Although there is no risk of yellow fever in Israel, you might need a yellow fever certificate as well.

British nationals should make sure to visit their doctor at least 1-2 months before their trip, to familiarise themselves with country-specific health risks. This meeting will also help assess for any preventive measure or other vaccinations that might be needed.

Getting treatment in Israel can be an expensive prospect. The hospitals do not tolerate delayed bill payments and can take legal action immediately. Travellers are always advised to arm themselves with a good travel insurance policy that offers adequate coverage with accessible funds to cover for any emergency medical treatment in Israel and even repatriation.

Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories are a key target for terrorists. UK nationals are advised to stay updated with media reports regarding this. In Israel, the emergency contact number is 100, while in the West Bank and Gaza, it is 101.

Jordan

Country Key Facts

Capital City Amman
Population 10,171,480 (according to 2018 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, English, French
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Druze
Calling Code +962
Currency Jordanian Dinar (JOD)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies, Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

Mesmerising the world with its natural beauty and offering numerous opportunities for outdoor adventure, like sky diving and snorkelling, Jordan is quite a popular destination among adventure lovers.

For an adrenaline-pumping experience, a British national will need to get a visa to visit Jordan. British nationals have three visa options to choose from:

  • Single Entry Visa: Valid for 1 month (approx. 40 JOD)
  • Double Entry Visa: Valid for 3 months (approx. 60 JOD)
  • Multiple Entry Visa: Valid for 6 months (approx. 120 JOD)

British nationals entering Jordan for tourism often get a single entry visa on arrival from the Sheikh Hussein/North Border crossing at the Jordan/Israel border. Later, the visa can be extended for a maximum period of 6 months. However, long term visitors need to undergo an HIV test.

When applying for a visa, make sure your passport is valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Jordan. Jordanian authorities accept UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) for travellers to enter, transit through and exit Jordan.

You can apply for a Jordan pass online, which gives you a combination of visa and entry to major tourist sites in the country at a reduced cost.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Jordan is a Muslim country, the majority population of which practices Islam. However, about 10% of the population follows Christianity. It is for this reason that Jordan’s culture has a significant Western influence. Here, you’ll find a pleasant mix of old and new traditions and practices.

However, in Jordan, you need to ensure that you show proper respect for Islam and the monarchy, through your behaviour and practices, especially when visiting religious sites during the holy month of Ramadan.

Prohibited Activities in Jordan

  • Taking photographs of government and military buildings
  • Public display of affection
  • Adultery
  • Alcohol consumption in public places or outside a bar
  • Illegal drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana.

Jordanian law is not completely against homosexuality. However, there is a vast conservative population in the country who do not accept the LGBT community and public display of affection between homosexual couples.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Jordan is popular for being a country full of sunshine. It features more than 310 days of sunshine a year. However, the heat during the summer can become intolerable, since the temperature can go very high.

Visitors are advised to carry and wear sun block at all times to prevent sun burns. Also, make sure to drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. It is wise for British nationals to visit a general health practitioner to get themselves assessed for any health risks and get advice on any preventive measures specific to Jordan.

Jordan offers basic medical facilities. You’ll find the advanced healthcare facilities mostly in Amman, the capital city of the nation. During an emergency situation, such as illness of accident, it is best to visit a hospital or clinic in Amman or Aqaba.

Make sure you are armed with travel insurance that covers the cost of emergency medical treatment in Jordan.

Kuwait

Country Key Facts

Capital City Kuwait City
Population 4,052,584 (according to 2016 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, English, Turkish
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Bahá'í
Calling Code +961
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

UK citizens need to apply for a travel visa to visit Kuwait. As major requirement for a visa is that the British tourist must hold a British passport, the validity of which extends for 6 months from their date of entry into Kuwait. The Kuwaiti government does not accept UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) for entry into the nation. However, ETDs are valid for transit through and exit from Kuwait.

You can get a free visa on arrival, valid for 3 months, if you are travelling to Kuwait by air. However, it is best to file an e-visa application before you arrive in Kuwait.

On arrival, the airport immigration authorities may request for the following documents:

  • A sponsor’s letter
  • Evidence of return or onward travel
  • Hotel confirmation proof

If you want to live and work in Kuwait, visit the Kuwaiti Embassy in London to learn about the procedure.

(Note: Any Israeli stamp on the passport can get you a visa rejection or entry refusal into Kuwait.)

Most Important Cultural Customs

Kuwait is an Islamic country. You will, however, see the locals embracing various aspects of Western culture. On the other hand, the residents mostly adhere by conservative values and social traditions.

In Kuwait, you’ll see women wearing traditional dresses only. Women are expected to keep their clothing covered with an abaya, a long length, full-sleeved black robe. They also need to keep their hair and neck covered with a hijab or veil. Don’t be surprised if you see women covering their entire face with a niqab or black veil in Kuwait. Make sure you dress modestly in public to avoid attracting negative attention.

Some other important things to remember are:

  • Taking photographs near industrial and military areas is prohibited.
  • Cross dressing and role play during sexual intercourse is punishable by law.
  • Public display of affection (intimate) is an offense.
  • Live-in relationships are illegal.
  • Possession and abuse of drugs is a crime.

All these prohibitions carry imprisonment and death penalties in Kuwait.

British nationals are strongly advised to familiarise themselves with the customs, laws, local traditions and religions before travelling to Kuwait. Doing anything inappropriate that could offend Kuwaitis or their cultural and religious beliefs, can get you into deep trouble. You have to be extra cautious when visiting a religious site in Kuwait or visiting the country during the holy month of Ramadan.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Kuwait’s healthcare system is state funded. Any person with a Kuwaiti passport gets treatment without any charge. However, it can become costly for expatriates and visitors to the country, who use the state medical facilities, effective from October 1, 2017. In Kuwait, it is really important that you keep yourself armed with travel insurance to cover for any medical treatment and even repatriation.

British nationals are advised to update themselves regarding routine vaccinations like measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, varicella (chickenpox), polio, etc., before travelling to Kuwait.

It is strongly recommended to visit a medical professional at least 1-2 months before your trip to Kuwait, to get further information about the vaccines and medicines you may need, specific to the country.

The emergency medical assistance number in Kuwait is 112, which you can call if you need an ambulance.

Lebanon

Country Key Facts

Capital City Beirut
Population 6,006,668 (according to 2016 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, French, English
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Drupe (minority religion)
Calling Code +961
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Hepatitis A, Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis B, Rabies, Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

If you are a British overseas person or protected person, you'll need to apply for a visa to travel to Lebanon. As a major requirement, your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 3 months from the date of entry into Lebanon.

To enter Lebanon, British Nationals can apply for:

  • Single entry tourist visa
  • family visit visa on arrival

If you do not have permission from the proper authority, you cannot extend your stay in Lebanon. If caught, you may be charged a fine. On not paying the fine, you may not be permitted to leave for your home country.

Emergency Travel Documents (ETD)

To enter, exit and transit in Lebanon, British citizens must carry Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs), in case their passport is lost/stolen, obtained from General Security Office. To depart from Lebanon to your home country, you'll need to obtain an exit visa from the General Security office.

(Note: If you are a UK citizen of Palestinian origin, you'll need keep certain extra documents handy to travel to Lebanon.)

Most Important Cultural Customs

Lebanon is an Arab country which have majorly Shia minorities. In Lebanon, the population is a mix of Muslims and Christians. Lebanon allows higher relaxation in dress codes. However, people are expected to dress modestly during their visit to the religious sites.

The people in Lebanon are highly protective towards their local traditions, laws, customs and religions. It is really important have a deep knowledge about their practices to avoid offending anyone from your actions. It becomes really important to be extra cautious towards your actions if you are visiting a religious site in Lebanon, especially during Ramadan, the holy month of Muslims. Visitors are allowed to take photos only the tourist sites.

In Lebanon, possessing, using or trafficking illegal drugs even in small quantities is considered a serious crime. If you are caught doing so, you'll be sentenced to jail. 

The country considers Homosexuality as a sexual act against nature. It is a punishable act in this country. If caught, the person will be sentenced jail for a year.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Lebanon boasts a good amount of well-equipped hospitals with well-qualified staff and great treatment and facilities.  The medical staff here mostly speaks English and French. Hence, communication will not be a problems. However, getting medical treatment in Lebanon is expensive. It is highly advisable to get yourself a travel health insurance with adequate and accessible funds to cover for any medical cost you might incur here.

As a preventive measure, it is highly recommended to schedule an appointment with a health professional 4-6 weeks, before traveling to Lebanon, especially if you are suffering from a pre-existing medical condition. This meeting will help you access all the health risks based on your Lebanon existing conditions, your medical history and the activities you are planning to do in Lebanon.

Before planning a travel to Lebanon, contact the Lebanese Embassy in UK, since entry requirements are subject to change.

Libya

Country Key Facts

Capital City Tripoli
Population 6,653,210 (according to 2016 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Italian
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Judaism
Calling Code +218
Currency Libyan Dinar (LYD)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies, Tuberculosis (TB), Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

Libya is a North African country, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Chad and Niger. Cyrene, Laptis Magma, Villa Silene, Sabratha and Tripoli are some of the most popular tourist destinations in the country.

At present, Libya is not issuing any tourist visas. The borders between the country and Niger, Chad, Sudan and Algeria are closed. All this is due to the ongoing political upheaval in Libya. Due to this, a Libyan visa issued overseas is not recognised in some areas of the country. Unlike other countries, where passport validity should be at least 6 months from the date of entry into the country, Libyan authorities require the passport to be valid only for the duration of the visitor’s stay in the country.

(Note: If you have previously travelled to Israel, indicated by an Israeli stamp on the passport, you will not be allowed to travel to Libya.)

Most Important Cultural Customs

Libya’s population is strongly influenced by Berber-Arabis, although Libyans consider themselves Arabs. The majority of the population here is Berber-Arabic, accompanied by small communities of Maltese, Greeks and Italians. Libya boasts more than 2,000 kilometres of Mediterranean coastline, which is what attracts tourists to this country the most. The highway system highly developed and driving on the open roads here is blissful.

The vast majority of Libyans follow Islam. The culture is highly conservative within the country. The crime rate is significantly low in Libya, mostly limited to pocket picking and theft.

Make sure you do not take photographs near military or official sites in Libya. Importing pork products into the country is forbidden. Open consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages is banned in Libya. Alcohol consumption is limited to licensed bars, hotels and restaurants. Provocative entertainment is also illegal in Libya.

Make sure you educate yourself about the procedures and regulations, including duty free items and goods that can be imported across Libya’s borders.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

The healthcare system in Libya is not at par with international standards. Limited financial resources, fragmented government, lack of human resources and lifesaving drugs, along with availability of only the basic medical equipment are the major reasons for the poor healthcare services in most parts of Libya. However, there are some good private clinics in Tripoli, the capital of the country.

It is strongly advisable to schedule an appointment with your general health practitioner at least 1-2 months before visiting Libya. This health check-up will help you assess any kind of health risks and preventive measures that you can take to avoid falling prey of certain country-specific diseases.

While you plan your trip to Libya, make sure you invest some time in finding a good travel insurance policy that can cover for your medical treatment and repatriation, if needed.

Oman

Country Key Facts

Capital City Muscat
Population 4,424,762 (according to 2016 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, English, Hindi
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Hinduism
Calling Code +968
Currency Rial (OMR)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

British nationals wanting to enter Oman as tourists need to apply for an unsponsored e-visa. The e-visa can be applied for online, through the Royal Oman Police Portal. A key requirement for visa eligibility is that the passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Oman. In case, you have lost your passport or it has been damaged or stolen, you can get UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs).

ETDs, valid for 6 months from the date of entry, can be used to enter, transit through and exit Oman. However, you’ll need an exit stamp on the ETDs to leave the country.

If you are on certain medication in the UK, check with the Ministry of Health in Oman to know if the prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines you are permitted in the country. In any case, make sure to carry a copy of your prescription.

Most Important Cultural Customs

An Arab country located on the South-eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, Oman is famous for its tourist attractions, beaches, Wadis, deserts and mountains, all of which make this nation stand apart from its neighbours.

Oman is an Islamic country, which is reflected in its customs and practices. It is important to educate yourself about them to enjoy a peaceful stay.

Oman is an Arab country that practices Islam. Women are expected to dress conservatively, especially when they are out in public. They should wear clothes that keep their upper arms and legs covered.

Women are treated with respect here. However, a female British national will need to be extra careful when travelling in Oman alone, since there have been some cases of sexual assault reported here. British women are advised not to dress in tight fitting clothes or wear shorts in Oman. This will only invite negative attention.

In Oman, you cannot eat, drink, and smoke publicly during daylight hours in the month of Ramadan. Doing so is punishable by law.

Avoid using any prominent gestures or bad language. Public display of affection is also not welcomed in Oman. Do not take photographs near military sites, airports, government buildings or religious sites.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Oman boasts high quality healthcare. Muscat has some of the largest and most advanced health centres and hospitals in the country. Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Royal Hospital of Oman are prominent ones among them.

British nationals will not find the healthcare in Oman any different from that in the UK. However, the treatment can be costly for some. If you are unable to pay for treatment, you will not be allowed to leave the country.

It is, therefore, strongly advisable to carry travel insurance with adequate coverage and accessible funds to cover for any treatment costs in Oman, including repatriation.

Before travelling to Oman, visit a good health professional to familiarise yourself with country specific information about vaccinations and preventive measures.

Palestine

Country Key Facts

Capital City East Jerusalem (Under Dispute)
Population 4,816,503 (according to 2016 Estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, English, Hebrew
Main Religions Islam, Christianity, Druze and Samaritans
Calling Code +970
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP), Israeli New Shekel (ILS), Jordanian Dinar (JOD)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Hepatitis A, Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis B, Rabies, Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

British nationals do not need to get a visa to enter Palestine as a tourist. Visa is only required for Israel, Jordan or Egypt, the countries via which Palestine is accessible. Foreign nationals are not subject to any visa conditions other than the conditions imposed by the visa policy of Israel. The government of Israel controls access of foreign nationals to Jerusalem and the West Bank.

Your passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the time you enter Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. You cannot use UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) to enter Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, since they are not considered valid for this purpose. However, they are accepted if you have to transit through or exit Israel.

Instead if an entry stamp on the passport, you will be given an entry card, if you enter Palestine visa Ben Gurion airport. However, at other ports of entry, you may need to get your passports stamped to enter Palestine. Make sure you keep the entry card safe, else you might not be allowed to leave.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Palestine features some of the most distinctive customs, culture, languages, music and art. However, you’ll find a huge similarity in the Palestine customs and conventions with its neighbouring Arab countries like Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

Being an Islamic country, the population of Palestine is mostly conservative. People are expected to dress modestly, especially in the West Bank, Jerusalem and Gaza. A large area of Palestine is occupied by the ultra-orthodox Jewish community, who have zero tolerance for modern dressing that involves skin show.

Driving into the ultra-orthodox Jewish neighbourhoods in Jerusalem from Friday’s sunset to Saturday’s sunset can get you into trouble. Make sure you are not seen eating, drinking and smoking from sunrise to sunset in Palestine during Ramadan, the holy month of Islam.

Taking photographs at religious sites or military and official sites is prohibited. Same sex relationships are not illegal when consensual.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Medical treatment is costly in Israel. If you are unable to make the payments, the hospitals will not hesitate to take legal action against you. Given this scenario, British Nationals cannot afford to enter Palestine without travel insurance that offers adequate medical coverage and accessible funds to cover for any emergency treatment and repatriation.

UK visitors should visit their health practitioner at least 1-2 months before their travel to Palestinian territories to get the required vaccinations and know about any preventive measures they should take before and during their trip.

The emergency medical assistance number of Palestine is 101, which you can call if you need an ambulance.

Qatar

Country Key Facts

Capital City Doha
Population 2,641,669 (according to 2017 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, Urdu, English
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Hinduism
Calling Code +974
Currency Riyal (QAR)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

In 2017, Qatar’s Ministry of Interiors (MoI), Qatar Tourism Authority (QTA) and Qatar Airways announced visa-free entry for citizens of 80 countries, to facilitate visitor’s access to Qatar. Interested travellers will be issued a free multi-entry visa on arrival. The multi-entry visa is valid for 30 days, 90 days and 180 days, depending on visitor's nationality.

To enter Qatar, a British national will have to obtain a free tourist visa on arrival, valid for 30 days from the date of issue. After 30 days, they can apply for an extension of an additional 30 days (multiple-entry waiver).

The passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Qatar. Travellers also need to present a confirmed onward or return ticket. The Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) issued by the UK government are not considered valid by Qatar's authority for entry. However, ETDs can be used to exit or transit through Qatar.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Qatar is a multicultural nation, with a large Islamic population. The country’s culture is majorly influenced by the Bedouin culture, along with some aspects of the Indian, Persian Gulf and East African cultures. In Qatar, residents are expected to dress modestly in public, especially women. The legs and shoulders of women should remain be covered in public.

Here are few things British nationals need to know before they plan a trip to Qatar to avoid hurting the sentiments of the locals or getting themselves into any kind of trouble:

  • Do not bring/import alcohol, pork products, pornographic material (DVDs and videos), and religious materials and books in Qatar. All this is considered illegal and punishable by law.
  • Don't take photographs or film people and religious, military or construction sites, to avoid hurting cultural sentiments. If absolutely needed, seek permission.
  • Drinking alcohol in public is an offence in Qatar. Make sure you go to a hotel, restaurant or bar, licensed to sell alcohol. Do not carry alcohol or appear in public drunk.
  • Importing, selling and purchasing electronic cigarettes, liquids and other similar products, even in the smallest quantities, is prohibited in Qatar.
  • Public display of affection, including intimacy between men and women, is a punishable offense
  • Homosexuality is illegal in Qatar.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Qatar boasts an impressive healthcare system, available to its residents, expats and tourists. The hospitals and healthcare networks have highly qualified staff and use advanced medical equipment to provide healthcare of excellent standards.

However, emergency medical treatment can be highly costly in Qatar. This is why it is always recommended to buy travel insurance, with adequate coverage for medical treatment and repatriation (if required), before travelling.

It is advisable for British nationals to schedule an appointment with their general practitioner at least a month before their trip to Qatar. This will help assess any health risks. Seeking medical advice at the earliest will help ascertain whether they need to get any vaccinations or follow preventive measures.

Qatar is a great destination for adventure lovers. Make sure you stay prepared to make the most of the adrenaline rush this country has to offer.

Saudi Arabia

Country Key Facts

Capital City Riyadh
Population 33,000,000 (according to 2018 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, Urdu, English
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity, Hinduism
Calling Code +966
Currency Saudi Riyal (SR)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Meningococcal disease, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

To attract visitors and encourage tourism, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has adopted a new and professional approach. A lot of flexibility can now be seen in the visa rules.

To enter Saudi Arabia, visitors, including pilgrims making the Hajj journey to the holy city of Mecca, need to obtain a visa. To be eligible for a visa, the passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into the country.

Travellers should know that UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs), issued in case the passport gets stolen or is lost, are not valid to enter into or transit through Saudi Arabia. However, the ETDs can be to exit the country.

A British national can apply for a visa through various visa agencies. However, they will need to ensure that the agency is accredited by the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia.

Overstaying the tourist visa is an offense. If caught doing so, the traveller could be charged a fine or deported to their home country.

Muslim travelling during the Hajj period but without a Hajj visa are not allowed transit via Jeddah or Madina airports. Non-Muslim travellers will need to prove the reason for their visit.

Most Important Cultural Customs

Saudi Arabia is a predominantly Islamic country. The people are conservative, family oriented, traditional and deeply religious here. Islamic laws are clearly reflected in their dressing, customs, etiquette and protocol.

British travellers need to keep familiarise themselves with the laws and local traditions to avoid offending anyone with their actions, especially while visiting a religious site in Saudi Arabia. Here are a few things that need to be kept in mind:

  • Men and women are expected to dress conservatively, in loose fitting attire. Women should wear an abaya (full-length cloak) and a headscarf, while men should wear full length trousers and full sleeved shirts.
  • Taking photographs of religious sites is a criminal offense.
  • You cannot practice any religion other than Islam in public.
  • Importing religious books and materials of other religions in bulk, as well as importing pork products and alcohol is illegal. Doing so is punishable by law and can lead to penalties.
  • Extra marital relationships, including adultery and homosexuality, are illegal in Saudi Arabia. Being a transgender is also illegal here.
  • Women have been legally permitted to drive in Saudi Arabia since June 24, 2018. However, it is advisable to seek local guidelines about licensing.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Million of pilgrims visit Saudi Arabia every year to participate in the Hajj. This leads to extreme crowd congestion at religious sites. During the time of Hajj and Ramadan, the risk of infectious diseases, including the flu, common cold and respiratory problems, is severely amplified.

UK citizens are recommended to visit a medical professional at least 2 months before their travel to Saudi Arabia. This will help them in assessing their risk of falling prey to any such communicable diseases. If required, they can get vaccinated or take preventive measures to minimise the risk.

Saudi Arabia boasts high quality health facilities, although treatment is costly. To avoid having to bear the expenses of healthcare during the trip, UK citizens are advised to equip themselves with a good travel insurance plan with adequate coverage.

Syria

Country Key Facts

Capital City Damascus
Population 18,284,407 (according to 2018 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, Kurdish, Aramaic
Main 3 Religions Islam, Christianity and Druzism
Calling Code +963
Currency Syrian Pound (SYP)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Hepatitis A, Polio, Tetanus, Typhoid
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

To enter Syria, British nationals using a full “British Citizen” passport will have to get a visa. The passport should be valid for at least 3 months from the date of entry into the country.

In Syria, you will need to carry identity proof at all times. It is advisable to keep a copy of your passport with you at all times too, including the information page and the page displaying the visa and the entry stamp.

Entering Syria illegally can get you a jail sentence of 5-10 years and/or a fine of 5-10 million Syrian pounds, effective from June 2013. The Syrian government also does not accept a visitor who has previously travelled to Israel, regardless of their nationality.

(Note: The UK government has stated, “We advise against all travel to Syria.”)

Most Important Cultural Customs

Syria is a diverse country, whose population includes a combination of Shia Muslim, Christian, Alawite, Druze and communities, blended with some other smaller communities. The nation highly promotes education and offers free and compulsory education for children belonging to the age group of 6-12 years.

The nation boasts a highly rich cultural heritage. Football, basketball, tennis and swimming are the most popular sports in Syria. In Syria, you can satiate your taste buds with delectable dishes, including Southern Mediterranean, Greek and Southwest Asian dishes.

Due to the ongoing conflict in the region, the environment is highly tense in Syria at present. Unlicensed religious and political activities are illegal in the country.

In Syria, you can be sentenced to life imprisonment if caught possessing drugs. Trafficking of drugs carries a death penalty.

Strict Warning: Homosexuality is illegal, and the LGBT community is not tolerated. Homosexuals and anyone belonging to the LGBT community should avoid visiting Syria.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

The healthcare system in Syria is significantly impacted by the ongoing multi-sided armed conflict (Syrian Civil War). A large number of hospitals and medical facilities have been destroyed. Those that are left are highly deficit in the most basic medical supplies and medicines.

At present, Syria is not safe for visitors/tourists, since no part of Syria is untouched by violence, with high incidence of serious injuries and death. Recently, there have been several cases of foreign hostages been killed in Syria too.

There has also been evidence of frequent outbreaks of infections in the country, due to almost non-existent infrastructure. British nationals are strongly advised to visit their health practitioner at least 1-2 months before their trip to Syria to familiarise themselves with the health risk factors and preventive measures that can be taken.

To keep yourself covered against any emergency medical treatment while in Syria, it is always recommended to arm yourself with travel insurance that offers adequate coverage.

Turkey

Country Key Facts

Capital City Ankara
Population 80,810,525 (according to 2017 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Turkish, Kurmanji, Arabic
Main 3 Religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Calling Code +90
Currency Turkish Lira (TRY)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies, Typhoid

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

If you are a British national, interested in visiting Turkey, you’ll need to apply for a visa to be able to enter the country. A Turkish visa can be applied for up to 90 days in advance of the date of travel. The three months multi-entry visa is available online through the official Republic of Turkey e-Visa website. The cost of the visa is about $20. The applicant’s passport should be valid for six months from their date of entry into Turkey to be eligible for a visa. Beware of unauthorised sites that issue fake e-visas and other sources that charge additional fees to obtain a visa.

Travellers can also get a 90-day multi-entry visitor visa on arrival in Turkey with a cash payment of £20. However, it is always advisable to apply for a visa before travel from the Turkish Consulate General in London, especially when travelling to Turkey on work or for education. Travellers will also need to apply for a visa before travel if they hold a UK Special Passport, as mentioned in the Turkish e-Visa system.

If you are travelling on a cruise ship with a British passport, you can enter Turkey visa-free for a maximum of 72 hours, without taking any permission from the authorities at the port of entry.

Most Important Cultural Customs

A large majority of Turks follow Islam. However, in terms of culture, Turkey is a unique blend of cultural elements, taken from both the East and the West.

Important Things to Remember

  • Permission is needed to photograph people. Taking photographs of official and military areas is prohibited.
  • Opt for modest clothing when visiting a religious site.
  • Smoking is a restricted in public places, especially in public transport and offices.
  • Using, possessing or trafficking illegal drugs is a criminal offense.
  • Selling, exporting and possessing antiques is a crime that can lead to fine and imprisonment.
  • In Turkey, homosexuality is legal. However, public displays of affection are not encouraged in Turkish society.
  • Insulting Turkey and its National Flag in any way is an offense.

Staying in Turkey will require a British national or any other visitor to carry some kind of photographic ID, including a copy of the e-visa, passport or residence permit.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Tourists are always advised to visit their general physician to get a health check specific to the county they are travelling to, especially if they have any pre-existing medical condition.

Before travelling to Turkey, it is important to stay updated on the routine vaccinations, which can include the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, polio vaccine, etc. It is really important to take into account any recently identified health risk or outbreak. Don’t forget to arm yourself with a good travel insurance policy to cover for the cost of any medical treatment required in Turkey.

The medical emergency number in Turkey is 112, which you can call if you need an ambulance.

United Arab Emirates

Country Key Facts

Capital City Abu Dhabi
Population 9,582,340 (according to 2018 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic
Main 3 Religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Calling Code +971
Currency UAE Dirham (AED)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Tetanus
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

The unbelievable view from Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest structure, the Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi, desert safaris, jet-skiing and scuba diving are some of the many reasons that attracts millions of travellers to the UAE each year.

A UK citizen can get a free-of-charge visitor’s visa on arrival when travelling to the UAE, issued for 30 days. There is no need to apply for a visa in advance. The passport should be valid for a period of at least 6 months from the date of entry into the country. On arrival, the passport will be stamped with the visa at the international airport, as the visitor passes through immigration.

However, other types of British nationality, such as British National Overseas or British Overseas Citizen, will have to contact the UAE Embassy in their home country to get a visa before arrival.

Most Important Cultural Customs

For a British National, the laws and customs in the United Arab Emirates can appear very different and challenging to follow.  For instance, women are expected to dress modestly, especially when they are in public areas. They should choose an attire that covers them from head to toe. The outline or the fabric of the undergarments should not be visible. However, they are given liberty to wear swimming costumes at swimming pools and beaches. The UAE does not encourage cross dressing.

Here are some other important things a UK national will need to know to ensure a peaceful stay in the UAE:

  • You cannot make rude gesture and swear in the UAE, both in public or online. Doing so is considered offensive and can lead to imprisonment or deportation.
  • Public displays of affection are not allowed. You can get arrested for kissing in public. Married couples are only allowed to hold hands in public.
  • Alcohol can only be served in hotels or private clubs. The legal age for drinking is 21 years. Drinking in public areas is illegal.
  • The UAE imposes huge penalties and sentences for the smuggling, trafficking and possession of drugs (even the smallest amount).
  • Importing electronic cigarettes is illegal.
  • Having sexual relationships outside marriage is illegal and carries a life sentence, deportation and prosecution risk.
  • Homosexuality and same sex marriages are illegal in the UAE.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

The UAE is one of the safest countries in the world for tourists. However, visitors can fall prey to the respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, is also a risk, leading to lung inflammation due to an infection. This infection has been seen in many UK travellers who visited the UAE recently.

British nationals should visit their doctor at least a month before their travel to the UAE to get a health check and assess for potential health risks in the UAE.

In the UAE, adequate health care is available in big cities. However, treatment can be highly expensive. It is, therefore, crucial that travellers arm themselves with appropriate travel insurance, which provides coverage for hospital stay, treatment and even medical evacuation.

The medical emergency number in the UAE is 999, which you can call for an ambulance.

Yemen

Country Key Facts

Capital City Sana'a (de jure, under Houthi administration)
Population 27,584,213 (according to 2016 estimate)
Main 3 Languages Spoken Arabic, Hebrew, Mehri
Main 3 Religions Islam, Judaism, Christianity
Calling Code +967
Currency Yemeni Rial (YER)
Advised Vaccines for most travellers Hepatitis A, Tetanus, Typhoid
Advised Vaccines for some travellers Cholera, Hepatitis B, Rabies, Tuberculosis (TB)

Entry Requirements for British Nationals

A British National will need a visa to enter Yemen. Visitors can apply for a visa at the Yemeni Embassy in London. Your passport should be valid for the number of days/weeks/months that you propose to stay in Yemen. If you intend to stay for more than 2 weeks in Yemen, get your passport registered with the immigration authorities in Yemen, once you arrive in the country.

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) does not advise British nationals to visit Yemen at present, including the mainland and all islands. In Yemen, the government ensures that foreign nationals do not travel to unsafe parts of the country.

Caution: The British Embassy in Sana’a is not operational at present. All diplomatic staff has been called back. So, British nationals will be unable to access any consular assistance in Yemen. This means that the British government cannot assist British nationals wanting to leave the country.

(Note: The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) advises UK nationals not to travel to Yemen. Since March 2011, the UK government have been advising British citizens to leave Yemen.)

Most Important Cultural Customs

Yemen is a Muslim country, where a majority of the population practices Islam. It is really important for a British national to educate themselves with the laws, customs and traditions of the country before travel. They’ll need to be extra cautious of their actions, words and behaviour in Yemen, especially at religious sites.

Ramadan is the holy month of Islam. During this time, it is especially important to show respect towards the beliefs and customs of Islamic culture.

Important things to follow during your stay in Yemen:

  • Avoid alcohol consumption in public areas.
  • Dress modestly and avoid provocative clothing.
  • Never take photographs without taking permission first.
  • If you can, avoid taking photographs near military and official sites in Yemen.

To prevent illegal sale and movement of Yemeni antiques, import and export of antiques has been prohibited and carry strict punishment. If necessary, get permission from the general authority.

Key Health and Vaccination Instructions

Yemen is undergoing a serious health crisis in recent times, due to the country being caught up in a deadly conflict. Since 2015, over 150 hospitals and health centres have been attacked. Nearly half of the health facilities in Yemen have been damaged or destroyed.

The nation terribly lacks doctors, medicines, supplies and fuel. Shortage of food, clean water and sanitation also increases the risk of infectious diseases. British nationals are strongly advised to visit their general health practitioner at least 1-2 months before their trip to Yemen to get county specific medical advice. They should also get themselves assessed for health risk factors in Yemen and preventive measures that can be taken.

British travellers are also advised to keep themselves armed with travel insurance that offers adequate coverage and accessible funds to cover for any emergency medical treatment in Yemen and repatriation.